|3a: Communicating with students||
Teacher gives unclear and confusing directions. (e.g., Teacher gives children directions with too many steps resulting in children merely following the last step.)
Most students appear confused and uninterested in the materials provided and don’t use them. (e.g. students wander from center to center with no clear purpose.)
Teacher does not clarify vocabulary and content that is confusing or unclear. (e.g., during center time, Teacher tells a child in the block center, “You need a moat with that castle” without further explanation.)
Teacher begins lesson by passing out materials with little explanation.
A few students appear confused and uninterested in using the materials provided during small group lesson.
Teacher’s explanation of content is clear but does not invite student participation or encourage students to think (e.g., teacher states, “Today we will be working with the wooden shapes during small group. You each have many different shapes to work with.)
Teacher states clearly what the students will be learning using age appropriate vocabulary.
If appropriate, the teacher models the use of materials and calls attention to how students use materials. (e.g., during a small group lesson the teacher uses the materials along with the children and says “I am arranging the red teddy bears in size order. The smallest one is first. Jeremy, I notice that you arranged the blue bears in size order and put the largest one first.)
Teacher’s explanation of content invites student participation and thinking. (e.g., as the teacher puts shapes on table she says, “We will be working with shapes today; I can make different pictures with the shapes. I can turn them upside down or sideways. I wonder how you can arrange your shapes on your paper.)
Teacher states clearly what the students will be learning using rich language and age appropriate vocabulary.
Students explain directions to peers and share different approaches to modeling materials.
Students share among each other how they are using materials (e.g. “Look what I am doing, I am measuring two rows of teddy bears, and the second row is longer”.)
Teacher checks for understanding by asking students to share what they are doing, encouraging the use of new vocabulary. (e.g., “Tamara said the triangle has points. Can you think of another word for points?”)
If appropriate, the teacher models the use of materials and calls attention to how others are using materials.
|3b: Using questioning / prompts and discussion||
Teacher’s questions are of low cognitive or low level and elicit a single correct response (e.g. Teacher asks, “What shape did you use there?”)
Teacher asks questions in asked rapid succession with little or no opportunity for student response.
There is a recitation style of learning, it is teacher directed and a few students dominate. (e.g., children sit on the carpet for a long period with the teacher talking.)
Teachers attempt to frame some questions designed to promote thinking and understanding with uneven results (e.g., after reading the story of the three pigs, the teacher asks, “What were the houses made of?”)
Teacher predominantly uses closed-ended questions.
Teacher rarely follows up to a child’s response or does so with a response that does not provoke thought (e.g. after a student says, “I think Annie will find the Panda”, teacher replies, “Good answer.”)
Teachers primarily pose questions to promote thinking and understanding.
In both large and small groups, teachers create opportunities for most students to be heard (e.g., while reading the story about the three pigs, a teacher asks: “What do you think may happen next? Why did the wolf blow down the house? If you were the author, how would this story end?”)
During a walk outside, a child notices a shadow, which followed prompts a discussion of shadows.
Students formulate many questions, initiate topics, and make unsolicited contributions. (e.g. Student asks the teacher to predict which car will make it down the ramp first.)
Teacher asks many open-ended questions.
Students read to peers in the library center and ask other children to make predictions.
|3c: Engaging students in learning||
Students do not appear interested/ engaged in activities (e.g., Children are roaming throughout centers without a clear purpose.)
Teacher makes no attempt or is unsuccessful at orienting and guiding students toward learning objectives (e.g., Children need a great deal of assistance to engage with materials.)
Pace is inappropriate – lesson drags or is rushed.
Lesson is too long and children are unable to stay focused. (e.g., children are disruptive, rolling on carpet, having to be called back, continually re-directed to focus.)
Students are given materials without an intentional purpose in order to keep them busy (e.g., manipulatives are put on tables to fill time; teachers are using technology that is unrelated to lessons.)
At times throughout the day, children are intellectually interested or engaged in activities.
Some activities are appropriate and partially achieve the learning objective.
The pacing of the lesson is uneven.
Activities are a mix of higher-level thinking and rote recall.
Children do not respond in partner work, limited engagement in activities.
During story time teacher reads the story and attempts to relate concepts to students’ prior knowledge.
Students need regular assistance to engage with materials.
Most students are intellectually engaged in activities. Use of technology is evident when appropriate (e.g., teacher demonstrates how to use an iPad to record a story retell.)
Lessons are purposeful and align to learning objectives.
Pacing is suitable and provides time needed to be intellectually engaged.
Materials support learning goals and require intellectual engagement.
Children remain involved in centers during the allotted time.
Children respond to questions, interact with peers and teachers for the duration of the activity.
Virtually all students are intellectually engaged in activities (e.g. students request additional/other materials and have choice in groupings.)
Students pose questions to teachers and/or peers, expand on teacher directed questions and ideas.
Children initiate connection to their culture, prior knowledge, life experiences, etc.
Children retell the story in their own words.
Students ask for additional materials to create individual props, collages, etc.
Children create different uses for provided materials (i.e. Create child-generated signs, labels etc.)
|3d: Using Assessment in Instruction||
Teacher’s system for assessing students is limited or absent.
Teacher uses no system to monitor student learning or a system that is primarily based on a single form of data (e.g. graded assignments.)
Little to no evidence of authentic/formative assessment information used (e.g. Teacher does not use a portfolio assessment system that is aligned to curriculum.)
Teacher feedback is general and masked as praise such as “Good job.”
Teacher’s system for assessing students via questions, anecdotal records, observations, photos, and/or work samples is sporadic.
Teacher questioning is rarely used to elicit student understanding and is mostly closed-ended.
Teacher feedback is not specific or individualized, and does not develop future improvement of student work.
Teacher’s system for assessing students via questions, anecdotal records, observations, photos, and/or work samples is observed and is effective (e.g., Teacher writes an anecdotal record of a child identifying main story ideas.)
Teachers collect evidence, work samples or anecdotal records daily (e.g., while engaging children in centers, teacher frequently writes anecdotal records and collects work samples.)
Teacher uses a combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions.
Teacher engages in feedback with students and repeats or extends the students’ responses.
Teachers collect evidence, work samples or anecdotal records for all children and weekly use the information to intentionally plan and differentiated instruction (e.g., after reviewing anecdotes from small group time, the teacher added color and shape to encourage more complex patterns and extensions.)
Teacher regularly uses questions to monitor and provide evidence of student learning (e.g. Teacher asks, “tell me why you think that ball will float?”)
Students apply teacher/student feedback in their own learning (e.g. while students are in centers, the teacher circulates and engages children in prolonged exchanges and dialogue.)
During center time, the teacher supports complex dramatic play by giving hints and cues as well as models behavior.
|3e: Demonstrating flexibility and responsiveness||
The teacher ignores a child’s suggestion to include a block from the block area as an illustration of a shape mentioned in a story.
Teacher is unresponsive to student behavior and keeping students engaged (e.g., child rolling around of carpet during circle time and teacher continues writing the morning message.)
During center time the teacher comments, “It’s December, so no more pumpkins in the art area okay?”
Teacher makes minimal adjustments to plans and sometimes is unaware of students who need extra support, assistance, or attention (e.g., after children have been sitting on the carpet for 20 minutes, teacher invites everyone to stand up, shake their legs and sit back down.)
Teacher attempts to engage students in questioning or interests, but does not deviate from scripted lesson to support student interest or understanding. (e.g., when a student suggests placing the Very Hungry Caterpillar in the investigation area, the teacher replies, “maybe we could do that another time.”)
Teacher successfully makes minor adjustments to address student interest and behavior. (e.g., a teacher includes blueprints in the block area that a child brought from home.)
Teacher allows students to explain their reasoning when solving problems and makes lesson adjustments. (e.g., teacher joins child in the investigation center after the child says, “she used a microscope at home to examine ants.”)
Teacher makes major adjustments to planned lessons (e.g. allows a student to identify materials to build concept development.)
Teacher extends students learning into extended lessons, incorporating additional resources from home or community (e.g.. extends tree study by having students bring in a collection of leaves from around their home.)